The United Kingdom 李仕才 一、阅读理解 阅读下面短文，从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中，选出最佳选项。 Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million. But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness(荒野). But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000. Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow-covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warming. An avalanche(雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives. But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go — to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of Dawson City — its present population is 762. 1. What attracted the early settlers to New York City? A. Its business culture. B. Its small population. C. Its geographical position. D. Its favourable climate. 2. What do we know about those who first dug for gold in Dawson? A. Two-thirds of them stayed there. B. One out of five people got rich. C. Almost everyone gave up. D. Half of them died. 3. What was the main reason for many people to leave Dawson? A. They found the city too crowded. B. They wanted to try their luck elsewhere. C. They were unable to stand the winter. D. They were short of food. 4. What is the text mainly about? A. The rise and fall of a city. B. The gold rush in Canada. C. Journeys into the wilderness. D. Tourism in Dawson. 【话题解读】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了Dawson这座城市的发展原因、过程与现状。 2.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第二段最后一句Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives.可知，在最初挖黄金的两万人中有4000人变富有，所以是五分之一的人变富了，故B正确。 3.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章最后一段中and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come.可知，人们离开Dawson的主要原因是听说在Alaska发现了黄金，也就是他们要去别的地方寻找发财的机会。故B正确。 4.A 【解析】主旨大意题。第一段简要介绍城市发展的原因，引出Dawson这一城市的兴起，第二段介绍了该城市兴起的原因，第三段介绍人们选择离开该城市的原因及现在的状况，所以全文围绕Dawson这个城市的发展起伏。故A正确。 二、教材与语法填空 根据教材课文内容，在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 The United Kingdom 1. (consist) of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England is the largest and for 2. (convenient) it is divided roughly into three zones. London is the centre of national government and its administration, 3. its fine museums, art collections and the oldest port. Why did only Northern Ireland join England？In 4. early twentieth century the English government tried to form the United Kingdom by getting Ireland 5. (connect) without conflict. However, the southern part of Ireland was unwilling and broke away 6. (form) its own government. To 7. (they) credit, the countries do work together in the currency, international relations and so on, but they still have very different 8. (institution)． 9． is a pity that in England the industrial cities do not attract visitors. People can go to the older but small towns 10. (build) by the Romans for historical architecture and to the countryside for great scenery as well. 答案：1.consists 2.convenience 3.with 4.the 5．connected 6.to form 7.their 8.institutions 9．It 10.built 三、完形填空 阅读下面短文，从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中，选出可能填入空白处的最佳选项。 An 18-year-old student at Stanford University was struggling to pay his fees.Not knowing where to turn for money，he came up with a bright __1__.He and a friend decided to host a musical concert on campus to __2__ money for their education. They__3__ out to the great pianist Ignacy J．Paderewski.His manager__4__ a guaranteed fee of$2,000 for the piano recital(独奏会)．A deal was__5__ and the boys began to work to make the concert a __6__. The big day arrived.But __7__ ，they had not managed to sell enough tickets.The total __8__ was only $1,600.Disappointed，they went to Paderewski and explained their plight(困境)．They gave him the entire $1,600，plus a __9__ for the balance$400.They promised to honor the check at the __10__ possible.Paderewski tore up the check，__11__ the$1,600 and told the two boys to keep the money they needed for the fees.The boys were__12__ ，and thanked him heartedly. It was a small act of __13__.But it clearly marked out Paderewski __14__ a great human being. __15__ should he help two people he did not even know? We all __16__ situations like these in our lives.And__17__ of us only think“If I help them，what will happen to me？”The truly __18__ people think，“If I don t help them，what will happen to them？”They don t do it __19__ something in return.They do it __20__ they feel it s the right thing to do. 1．A.time B．task C．idea D．decision 2．A.receive B．raise C．borrow D．donate 3．A.reached B．turned C．pointed D．called 4．A.increased B．covered C．considered D．demanded 5．A.rejected B．struck C．canceled D．attracted 6．A.success B．career C．background D．performance 7．A.uncertainly B．unbelievably C．unfortunately D．undoubtedly 8．A.cost B．bill C．collection D．allowance 9．A.benefit B．profit C．charge D．check 10．A.soonest B．latest C．longest D．farthest 11．A.took B．counted C．deposited D．returned 12．A.pleased B．surprised C．frightened D．interested 13．A.devotion B．kindness C．sympathy D．teamwork 14．A.like B．for C．as D．to 15．A.How B．Where C．When D．Why 16．A.come across B．deal with C．adapt to D．think of 17．A.both B．few C．none D．most 18．A.able B．rich C．great D．famous 19．A.taking B．expecting C．offering D．preparing 20．A.because B．though C．before D．so 【解题导语】两个大学生本想通过组织一场音乐会赚取学费，可是音乐会并不成功，但善良的受邀钢琴家的大方举动却给他们解了围。 1．C 根据设空后的He and a friend decided to host a musical concert.可知，他和朋友决定举办一场音乐会以筹集学费，这是他的想法(idea)。故选C项。 2．B 根据上文中的Not knowing where to turn for money可知，由于学费不够，他和朋友决定举办音乐会来筹集学费。receive意为“收到”；raise意为“筹集”；borrow意为“借”；donate意为“捐献”。故选B项。 3．A reach out to意为“表示对……感兴趣；表示愿意提供援助”；turn out意为“证明是；结果是”；point out意为“指出”；call out意为“大声呼叫；呼喊”。根据第二段可知，他们开音乐会要邀请著名的钢琴家，说明他们对这位钢琴家有兴趣。故选A项。 测训诊断：本题考生易误选B项?？忌装裻urn to“求助于”和turn out to“证明是；结果是”以及reach out to“表示对……感兴趣”混淆。 4．D 根据设空后的a guaranteed fee可知，钢琴家的经纪人要求(demanded)他们付2,000美元的保证金。故选D项。increase意为“增加”；cover意为“覆盖；遮蔽；包括；报道”；consider意为“考虑；细想；认为”。 5．B 根据设空后的began to work可知，他们之间达成了协议。strike a deal意为“达成协议”；reject意为“拒绝”；cancel意为“取消”；attract意为“吸引”。故选B项。 6．A 他们达成了协议，并且为了音乐会的成功举办，他们开始积极筹备。故选A项。success意为“成功的事”，career意为“职业；事业”；background意为“背景；出身”；performance意为“表演；演出；表现”。 7．C 根据前文可知他们达成了协议，再根据设空后的had not managed to sell enough tickets可知，他们并没有卖出足够的票，这对他们来说是不幸的。故选C项。 8．C 根据设空后的$1,600以及下文的$400可知，此处指他们总的筹款为1,600美元。cost意为“花费；成本；代价”；bill意为“账单”；collection意为“筹集的钱；收藏品”；allowance意为“津贴；补贴”。 9．D 根据下文的They promised to honor the check at the ________ possible.可知，因为他们并没有筹到足够的钱，所以又写了400美元的支票作为欠款。故选D项。 10．A 他们承诺尽快(soonest)承兑支票，故选A项。 11．D 根据空前的Paderewski tore up the check及空后的told the two boys to keep the money they needed for the fees可知，钢琴家撕毁了支票，并且还把1,600美元还给了(returned)他们让他们当做学费。故选D项。 12．B 根据上文可知，他们本来是承诺了要给钢琴家2,000美元，但却没有筹够钱，而钢琴家又把钱还给了他们，因此，他们非常惊讶(surprised)而且非常感激。故选B项。pleased意为“高兴的；快乐的；满意的”；frightened意为“害怕的”；interested意为“感兴趣的”。 13．B 根据上文可知，钢琴家没有要保证金，而且把钱给了两个大学生充当学费，因此这是一个善举。devotion意为“献身；贡献”；kindness意为“善良”；sympathy意为“同情”；teamwork意为“团队合作”。故选B项。 14．C 钢琴家的善举使得他更显人的伟大之处。mark.out as意为“使……看上去脱颖而出成为……”，符合语境。故选C项。 15．D 根据下文可知，每个人都遇到过帮与不帮别人的问题，由此可推测，本句应是探讨帮助别人的原因。故选D项。 16．A 根据下文And ________ of us only think“If I help them, what will happen to me？”可知，我们都曾遇到过类似的情况。come across意为“偶遇；邂逅”，符合语境。故选A项。deal with意为“处理；处置”；adapt to意为“适应”；think of意为“想起；想到”。 17．D 根据语境可知，此处应指我们大多数，故选D项。 18．C 根据上句可知，大多数人是在想帮助别人对自己的影响，而伟大的人却想如果不帮助别人对他人有什么影响。great意为“伟大的”，符合语境。故选C项。 19．B 根据上文的“If I don t help them, what will happen to them？”可知，他们是在考虑别人，不求(expecting)回报。故选B项。 20．A 根据最后一段可知，伟大的人不求回报地去帮助别人，他们之所以这么做，是因为他们感觉这是正确的事情。因此，设空处表原因，引导原因状语从句。故选A项。 四、教材与话题写作 (Ⅰ)用本单元所学知识完成下列句子。 1．众所周知，英国由英格兰、威尔士、苏格兰和北爱尔兰四个国家组成。英格兰是四个国家中最大的一个。(consist of) 答案：As we all know, the UK consists of four countries—England, Wales, Scoltland and Northern Ireland. England is the largest one of the four countries. 2．英国位于欧洲西北部，英吉利海峡(the English Channel)把它与欧洲大陆分开。(separate) 答案：The UK lies in the northwest of Europe and it is separated from Europe by the English Channel. 3．它的首都伦敦是欧洲最大和最具国际特色的城市。(international) 答案：Its capital London is Europe’s largest and most international city. 4．在那里有很多旅游景点，每年吸引着来自世界各地的游客。(tourist attraction) 答案：There are lots of tourist attractions and they attract visitors from all over the world every year. (Ⅱ)将以上句子连成短文，要求衔接连贯、过渡自然。 五、下面是李华的一篇作文，文中有五处错误，改正错误并背诵该文。 Which we all know, the UK consists of four countries—England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, of which England is the larger one. The UK lie in the northwest of Europe, which is separated from Europe by the English Channel. Its capital London is Europe’s largest and most international city, where there are lots of tourist attraction and they attract visitors from all over the world in every year. 答案： we all know, the UK consists of four countries—England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, of which England is the one. The UK in the northwest of Europe, which is separated from Europe by the English Channel. Its capital London is Europe’s largest and most international city, where there are lots of tourist and they attract visitors from all over the world every year.