Festivals around the world 李仕才 【阅读理解插花】 It is said that if you want to stay young, sit down and have a good think. This is the research finding of a team of Japanese doctors, who say that most of our brains are not getting enough exercise—and as a result, we are growing old unnecessarily soon. Professor Taiju Matsuzawa wanted to find out why otherwise healthy farmers in northern Japan appeared to be losing their ability to think and reason at a relatively early age, and how the process of aging could be slowed down. With a team of colleagues at Tokyo National University, he set about measuring brain volumes of a thousand people of different ages and varying occupations. Computer technology enabled the researchers to obtain precise measurements of the volume of the front and side parts of the brain, which controls functions like eating and breathing, does not contract with age, and one can continue living without intellectual on economical faculties. Contraction of front and side parts—as cells die off—was observed in some subjects in their thirties, but it was still not evident in some sixty-and seventy-year-olds. Matsuzawa concluded from his tests that there is a simple way to the contraction normally connected with age—using the head. The findings show in general terms that contraction of the brain begins sooner in people in the country than in the town. Those least at risk, says Matsuzawa, are lawyers, followed by university professors and doctors. White collar workers doing routine work in government offices are, however, as likely to have shrinking (萎缩) brains as the farm workers, bus drivers and shop assistants. Matsuzawa’s findings show that thinking can prevent the brain from shrinking. Blood must circulate properly in the head to supply the fresh oxygen the brain cells need. “The best way to maintain good blood circulation is through using the brain. ” he says. “Think hard and engage in conversation. Don’t rely on pocket calculators. ” 【文章大意】本文讲述了想要保持年轻的秘诀: 越是乐于思考、使用大脑的人, 越不容易脑衰老, 这是日本一个医学研究团队的研究结果。 1. The team of doctors wanted to find out ________. A. the size of certain people’s brains B. how to make people live longer C. which people are most intelligent D. why certain people are aging sooner than others. 【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第二段“Professor Taiju Matsuzawa wanted to find out why otherwise healthy farmers in northern Japan appeared to be losing their ability to think and reason at a relatively early age, and how the process of aging could be slowed down. ”医生们想要研究如何减缓老龄化的过程, 也就是说如何让人们更长寿。 2. On what are their research findings based? A. The study of brain volumes of different people. B. The study of brain volumes of old people. C. The latest development of computer technology. D. A survey of farmers in northern Japan. 【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第二段“he set about measuring brain volumes of a thousand people of different ages and varying occupations. ”可知通过测量一千个不同年龄不同职业的人的脑容量来做实验。 3. The doctors’ tests show that ________. A. our brains shrink as we grow older B. the front section of the brain does not shrink C. sixty-year-olds have better brains than thirty-year-olds D. some people’s brains have contracted more than other people’s 【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据第三段“The findings show in general terms that contraction of the brain begins sooner in people in the country than in the town. ”研究发现农村的人比城镇的人的大脑更早开始萎缩, 然后后面又列出不同职业的对比, 脑萎缩最慢的是律师, 紧接着是大学教授, 医生, 然后又列出其他职业。这些说明有些人的脑萎缩就比较多、比较快, 有些人就比较慢、比较少, 因此答案为D。 4. According to the passage, which people seem to age more slowly than the others? A. Lawyers. B. Farmers. C. Clerks. D. Shop assistants. 【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第三段“Those least at risk, says Matsuzawa, are lawyers, followed by university professors and doctors. ”可知脑萎缩最慢的是律师。 教材与语法填空 根据教材课文内容，在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 There are all kinds of festivals throughout the world, which are held to 1. (satisfaction) and please the ancestors, to honour some famous people or important 2. (event), and to express people’s gratitude to the God for bringing them a year of plenty. For example, Japanese observe Obon, 3. people go to clean graves and light incense 4. memory of their ancestors. In India, October 2 is a national festival to honour Mohandas Gandhi, who helped India become an 5. (depend) country. And in China the Spring Festival, which 6. (celebrate) in January or February, is the 7. (energy) and important because it is a festival that 8. (look) forward to the coming of spring. Why are all these festivals everywhere？Because during the festivals, people can get together to eat, drink and have fun with each other, 9. (forget) all the daily struggles and demands for 10. while. 答案：1.satisfy 2.events 3.when 4.in 5.independent 6．is celebrated 7.most energetic 8.looks 9．forgetting 10.a 教材与话题写作 (Ⅰ)用本单元所学知识完成下列句子。 1．春节总是让我们想到家庭团聚。(remind) 答案：The Spring Festival always reminds us of the family reunion. 2．在春节有各种各样的活动。(there be) 答案：There are all kinds of activities during the Spring Festival. 3．孩子们特别盼望春节。(look forward to) 答案：Children especially look forward to the Spring Festival. 4．对成年人来说，这也是一个美好的时光。(It’s a good time.) 答案：It’s also a good time for adults. 5．他们可以相互表达感激、原谅或宽恕之情。(appreciation; apology；forgive) 答案：They can express appreciation, make an apology or forgive each other. 6．遗憾的是有些人由于各种原因，不能出现在这个重大的节日里。(It is a pity that.；turn up) 答案：It is a pity that some people can’t turn up at such a great festival for a variety of reasons. (Ⅱ)将以上句子连成短文，要求衔接连贯、过渡自然。 【完形填空插花】 阅读下面短文，从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中，选出可能填入空白处的最佳选项。 I was a shy kid.Nothing seemed harder than talking to people.I didn t even like to answer the phone for fear that I d have to talk to somebody I didn t know. __1__ ，at school I had to spend all day in the company of others.My __2__ was studying.It was something I could do __3__ and by myself.I spent a lot of time studying and was __4__ with good grades. Eventually I went to college.I came to realize that some people were rather fun to __5__ with.Yet my childhood __6__ carried over and I found myself tongue-tied and __7__ whenever I found myself in a conversation. One day while on campus，I __8__ an advertisement for a position on the local classical music __9__ station.I had grown up listening to classical music，and I loved it. In order to get the job，applicants needed to be interviewed.I had absolutely no background in radio，and the idea of talking to thousands of listeners __10__ me.I didn t really want the job.I just wanted to prove that I could talk to a(n) __11__. Two weeks __12__ ，I was even more terrified to discover that I had actually landed the job. It was a __13__ job，but I grew to enjoy it.I announced music to thousands of __14__ in the city，sometimes answering their calls and __15__ to their requests.I began to feel comfortable talking to these people，these strangers who I couldn t even __16__. Although I now spend much time talking with people，I m still basically a __17__ person.My former shyness is a gift，as I can __18__ people who feel discomfort when they talk to strangers.I still enjoy moments of being __19__.But I m also glad I decided to make a __20__ in my life that had opened many doors and opportunities that I never knew existed. 1．A.However B．Therefore C．Otherwise D．Besides 2．A.advice B．practice C．task D．escape 3．A.obviously B．simply C．quietly D．poorly 4．A.filled B．rewarded C．decorated D．faced 5．A.help out B．catch up C．put up D．hang out 6．A.happiness B．shyness C．kindness D．goodness 7．A.excited B．astonished C．embarrassed D．interested 8．A.noticed B．posted C．realized D．believed 9．A.fire B．gas C．TV D．radio 10．A.terrified B．pleased C．satisfied D．amazed 11．A.child B．singer C．interviewer D．applicant 12．A.ago B．later C．before D．since 13．A.well-paid B．puzzling C．comfortable D．challenging 14．A.listeners B．followers C．viewers D．dancers 15．A.referring B．responding C．offering D．comparing 16．A.feel B．move C．hear D．see 17．A.busy B．warm C．quiet D．smart 18．A.look into B．relate to C．combine with D．worry with 19．A.alone B．alive C．active D．awake 20．A.plan B．mistake C．change D．dream 【解题导语】该文主要讲述了害羞的作者通过应聘电台工作而实现自我突破的故事。 1．A 根据上下文可知，此处表示逻辑上的转折关系。然而，作者在学校里不得不和同学们相处。 2．D 根据上文的“I was a shy kid”可推知，害羞的作者在学校用学习来逃避与人交流。 3．C 与语境“by myself”呼应可推知，作者一个人安安静静地做功课。 4．B 与语境“with good grades”呼应可推知，作者在学习上的付出得到了丰厚的回报，成绩突出。 5．D 由“Eventually”的提示可推知，作者最终意识到了和朋友相处是有趣的。hang out“常去某处”。 6．B 根据上文的“I was a shy kid”并结合“I found myself tongue-tied”可推知，作者童年时代的害羞个性还存在。 7．C 根据“I found myself tongue-tied”可推知，和他人交流时沟通不顺畅是令人尴尬的。 8．A 根据语境可知，作者在校园里注意到了一则让他感兴趣的广告。 9．D 根据下文的“I had absolutely no background in radio”可推知，这是一则电台的招募广告。 10．A 根据“I had absolutely no background in radio”并结合下文的“I didn t really want the job”可推知，作者因自己没有广播方面的背景而打退堂鼓，与下文的“I was even more terrified to discover that I had actually landed the job”呼应。 11．C 作者害怕与成千上万的听众交流，只想证明自己能够和面试官交谈。 12．B 根据语境可推知，时间已经过去了两周。 13．D 根据上文可知，这项工作需要与成千上万的听众交流，这对作者来说有一定的挑战性，且与语境“but I grew to enjoy it”形成呼应。 14．A 与上文的“and the idea of talking to thousands of listeners __10__ me”呼应可推知，此处表示作者给听众播放音乐。 15．B 与语境“answering their calls”呼应可推知，作者回应听众的要求。 16．D 根据上文可知，作者应聘的是电台工作，和听众们基本上是不见面的。 17．C 根据“still”的提示并结合上文的“I was a shy kid”可推知，作者尽管现在花费很多时间和人们交流，但是本质上还是一个不多说话的人，与下文的“My former shyness is a gift”呼应。 18．B 结合“My former shyness is a gift”可推知，作者能够理解那些和他相同的人。relate to“理解，认同”。 19．A 根据上文的“My former shyness is a gift”可推知，作者仍旧喜欢独处。 20．C 根据语境可推知，作者通过做电台工作有了重大改变，从而人生有了更多的可能性。 下面是李华的一篇作文，文中有五处错误，改正错误并背诵该文。 The Spring Festival always reminds us the family reunion, when there are all kinds of activities. As a result, children especial look forward to it. It’s also a good time for adults, that they can express appreciation, make an apology and forgive each other. However, it is a pity that some people can’t turn up at such a great festival for a variety of reason. 答案： The Spring Festival always reminds us the family reunion, when there are all kinds of activities.As a result, children look forward to it. It’s also a good time for adults，they can express appreciation, make an apology forgive each other. However, it is a pity that some people can’t turn up at such a great festival for a variety of .