Unit 4 Astronomy the science of the stars 李仕才 【阅读理解插花】 The more hours young children spend in child care, the more likely they are to turn out aggressive and disobedient by the time they are in kindergarten, according to the largest study of child care and development ever conducted. Researchers said this correlation(相关性) held true regardless of whether the children came from rich or poor homes, were looked after by a relative or at a center, and whether they were girls or boys. What is uncertain, however, is whether the child care actually causes the problem or whether children likely to turn out aggressive happen to be those who spend more hours in child care. It also remains unclear whether reducing the amount of time in child care will reduce the risk that a child will turn into a mean person. What’s more, quality child care is associated with increased skills in intellectual ability such as language and memory, leading some academics to suggest that child care turns out children who are “smart and naughty”. The government-sponsored research, which has tracked more than 1, 300 children at 10 sites across the country since 1991, is bound to cause the debate over child care again: How should people balance work and family? And how should parents, especially mothers, resolve the demands that are placed on them to be both breadwinners and supermoms? That debate was already on display at a new briefing yesterday, where researchers themselves had different opinions about the data and its implications(含义). “There is a constant relationship between time in child care and problem behavior, especially those involving aggression, ” said Jay Belsky of Birkbeck College in London, one of the lead investigators of the study who has previously annoyed women’s groups because of his criticisms of child care. “On behalf of fathers or mothers? ” interrupted Sarah Friedman, a developmental psychologist at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and one of the other lead scientists on the study. “On behalf of parents and families, ” responded Belsky. “NICHD is not willing to get into policy recommendations, ” said Friedman, contradicting her colleague. “There are other possibilities that can be entertained. Yes it is a quick solution—more hours in child care is associated with more problems. The easy solution is to cut the number of hours but that may have implications for the family that may not be beneficial for the development of the children in terms of economics. ” In an interview after the briefing, Friedman said that asking parents to work fewer hours and spend more time with their children usually meant a loss of family income, which adversely(不利地)affects children. Scientists said that the study was highly reliable. But the researchers said they had no idea whether the behavioral difficulties persisted as the children moved to higher grades. 【文章大意】本文讲述儿童早期在托管所的成长对孩子的心理有负面影响。 1. Children who spend more time in quality child care will ________. A. develop greater ability in language B. be easy to manage and less naughty C. possess great risk-taking spirit D. be greedy and mean to their classmates 【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据文章第二段的“What’s more, quality child care is associated with increased skills. . . ”可知A项培养更强的语言能力表述正确。 2. What is still unknown about the children in kindergarten? A. Whether higher level of aggressiveness can be avoided with longer child care. B. Where longer child care equally affects children from different families. C. Whether aggressiveness is a direct result of longer child care. D. Whether longer child care improves intellectual ability in children. 【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据第二段中的“What is uncertain, however, is whether the child care actually causes the problem or whether children likely to turn out aggressive happen to be those who spend more hours in child care. (不确定的是, 是否托管所真能导致这些问题, 以及是否可能有攻击性的孩子刚好是那些在托管所里待时间长的孩子。)”可知, 答案C(攻击性是否是长时间待在托管所的直接结果。)和上文表述一致, 故选C。 3. In the fifth paragraph the word “it” probably means “________”. A. NICHD is unwilling to give parents recommendations B. NICHD is willing to give policy advice concerning child care C. the number of hours in child care should be reduced significantly D. parents should discipline the behavior of their children more strictly 【解析】选C。词义猜测题。根据上文Jay Belsky的观点“There is a constant relationship between time in child care and problem behavior, especially those involving aggression, ”(托管时间和问题行为有特定的联系, 特别是涉及攻击性方面)。故这里的it指的是“托管时间应该减少”。 教材与语法填空 根据教材课文内容，在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 The earth was just a cloud of dust after the “Big Bang”. The earth exploded 1. (loud) with fire and rock. They were in time 2. (produce) many things, which were to make the earth’s atmosphere. As the earth cooled down, water began to appear on its surface. It allowed the earth to dissolve 3. (harm) gases. Then life began to develop. The first extremely small plants multiplied and filled the oceans and seas 4. oxygen. This encouraged the 5. (develop) of early shellfish and fish. Land animals such as insects, reptiles and dinosaurs 6. (appear) after green plants appeared. Small clever animals spread all over the earth. They 7. (put) too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere，8. prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space.9. life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can 10. (solve)． 答案：1.loudly 2.to produce 3.harmful 4.with 5．development 6.appeared 7.are putting 8．which 9.Whether 10.be solved 教材与话题写作 (Ⅰ)用本单元所学知识完成下列句子。 1．我们能否登上火星依赖于科学技术的发展。(land；depend on) 答案：Whether we can land on Mars depends on the development of science and technology. 2．火星上没有氧气，昼夜温差大，这使我们不能生活在那里。(make it＋adj.) 答案：There is no oxygen on Mars and the temperature changes greatly from day to night，and this makes it impossible for us to live there. 3．火星与地球环境完全不同。(be different from) 答案：The environment of Mars is quite different from that of our earth. 4．如果我们想到火星上住些日子，我们要带上氧气、食物、衣服等。(take along.with) 答案：If we want to stay on Mars for a few days，we should take along our own oxygen，food，clothing and so on with us. 5．我坚信不久的将来我们一定能成功地登上火星。(succeed in doing) 答案：I firmly believe that we will succeed in landing on Mars in the near future. (Ⅱ)将以上句子连成短文，要求衔接连贯、过渡自然。 【完形填空插花】 阅读下面短文，从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中，选出可能填入空白处的最佳选项。 I lived in Dallas，Texas nearly all my life with my dad，mom and younger brother.We were raised to __1__ others，value education，and get all that we could out of life.My parents always say，“Work __2__ and the world is yours.”They are __3__ without a helpful word of__4__ or a bit of encouragement when life gets__5__. My parents always __6__ me to go to college.However, when I__7__ at 16 years old that I d rather get married to a man __8__ go to college，they never stopped telling me they loved me and I could do anything I wanted to.Thankfully，they persuaded me.I graduated from high school and currently __9__ the University of Oklahoma studying medicine.I want to make the world a__10__ place to live in. Every time I call home to tell them about a grade received in the chemistry lab or__11__ class it is that I m working hardest on for the moment，they tell me how __12__ of me they are.I know there are college kids out there that have no one to __13__ home to when they get an“A”on a project and I feel incredibly__14__ to have my parents.They never__15__ loving me or believing in me. Parents are the best gift that God gives me.__16__ their constant love and encouragement，I wouldn t believe I can __17__ the world.My parents __18__ me to always fight for what I __19__ in.So I m working toward something really great and can only hope I__20__ to make them proud. 1．A.inspire B．respect C．guide D．follow 2．A.hard B．solidly C．attentively D．intelligently 3．A.sometimes B．anytime C．ever D．never 4．A.method B．advice C．education D．introduction 5．A.tough B．smooth C．bright D．happy 6．A.reminded B．supposed C．designed D．expected 7．A.decided B．hesitated C．judged D．remembered 8．A.but B．and C．than D．while 9．A.joined B．attended C．served D．admitted 10．A.comfortable B．suitable C．peaceful D．better 11．A.whenever B．whichever C．wherever D．however 12．A.ashamed B．nervous C．proud D．modest 13．A.go B．run C．return D．call 14．A.blessed B．annoyed C．praised D．relaxed 15．A.stopped B．helped C．blamed D．prevented 16．A.With B．Without C．Under D．Beneath 17．A.change B．destroy C．conquer D．challenge 18．A.forced B．ordered C．allowed D．taught 19．A.enjoy B．work C．believe D．live 20．A.want B．wish C．have D．continue 【解题导语】爸爸、妈妈、弟弟和“我”住在达拉斯，父母教育我们要尊重别人，重视教育，他们的爱和鼓励对“我”意义重大。 1．B 根据全文内容可知，父母教育我们要尊重别人，重视教育。respect意为“尊敬，尊重”，符合语境。 2．A 父母总是教育我们：“努力工作，世界就是你们的?！惫恃。 3．D 当生活变得艰难时，父母总会给我们有益的建议或一些鼓励。never without为双重否定，表示肯定的意思。 4．B 参见上题解析。a helpful word of advice表示“有用的建议”。 5．A 参见3题解析。tough“艰难的，艰苦的”。 6．D 根据该段中的“Thankfully, they persuaded me”可知，父母一直期望“我”上大学并最终说服了“我”。expect“期望，期待”。 7．A 根据下文父母对“我”的劝说可知，16岁时“我”决定(decided)结婚而不是上大学。 8．C 16岁时“我”决定结婚而不是上大学。would rather.than.为固定用法，表示“宁愿……而不愿……”。 9．B 根据文中的“they persuaded me.I graduated from high school and.medicine”可知，“我”高中毕业后上了一所大学。attend意为“经常去，定期去(学校、教堂等)”。 10．D 根据文中的“the University of Oklahoma studying medicine”可知，“我”主修医学，想让这个世界成为更好的(better)可供人们生活的地方。 11．B 每次当“我”打电话告诉他们“我”在实验室里的成绩或是“我”当时正努力学习的任何一门课程时，他们会告诉“我”他们以“我”为傲。whichever class意为“无论哪一门课”。 12．C 父母以“我”取得的成绩而自豪。be proud of为固定用法，意为“以……自豪”。 13．D “我”知道有的大学生在得到一个“A”时，因没家人所以无法打电话回家。故选D。 14．A 和那些得了“A”却没有家人可告知的同学相比，“我”有这样的父母是非常有福的。blessed意义“有福的”。 15．A 父母从不停止对“我”的爱，从不停止对“我”的信赖。stop doing sth.“停止做某事”。 16．B 没有(Without)父母持续不断的爱和鼓励，“我”不可能相信“我”能改变世界。 17．A 参见上题解析。故选A。 18．D 父母一直教育(taught)“我”去为“我”认为对的事而奋斗。 19．C 参见上题解析。believe in sth.“认为某事好(或对、可接受)”，符合语境。 20．D “我”会继续努力，希望父母继续为“我”感到自豪。continue to do sth.表示“继续做某事”，为固定用法。 下面是李华的一篇作文，文中有五处错误，改正错误并背诵该文。 Whether we can land on Mars depend on the development of science and technology.There is no oxygen on Mars and the temperature changes great from day to night，which makes it impossible for us live there.As we all know，the environment of Mars is quite different from that of our earth. In a fact，if we want to stay on Mars for a few days，we should take along our own oxygen，food，clothing and so on with us. However，I firmly believe that we will succeed in land on Mars in the near future. 答案： Whether we can land on Mars on the development of science and technology.There is no oxygen on Mars and the temperature changes from day to night，which makes it impossible for us live there. As we all know，the environment of Mars is quite different from that of our earth. In fact，if we want to stay on Mars for a few days，we should take along our own oxygen，food，clothing and so on with us. However，I firmly believe that we will succeed in on Mars in the near future.